Cómo usar mejor el tiempo y ganar productividad

usar mejor el tiempo

Todos queremos aprender a usar mejor el tiempo. Pero ¿cómo hacerlo? Aplicando lo que conocemos como Principio de Pareto: dedicando  nuestro tiempo y esfuerzo al 20% de las tareas que nos generan el 80% de los beneficios. Esta es una herramienta para hacerlo. 

La Matriz de Priorización es una técnica simple, basada en un diagrama que sirve para elegir qué actividades priorizar y cuáles postergar o eliminar, para maximizar la eficiencia en el uso del tiempo y los recursos.

Su utilidad radica en que la mayoría de las empresas (y de las personas), tienen más actividades en sus listas de tareas o proyectos, que tiempo o recursos disponibles.  Eligiendo las actividades inteligentemente, se pueden aprovechar al máximo el tiempo y las oportunidades.

Eligiendo mal es fácil empantanarse en actividades intensivas en tiempo y de escasos beneficios, que limitan las oportunidades de mejora y ralentizan el avance.

Cómo usar la herramienta.

En la siguiente figura te muestro la forma básica de la Matriz de Priorización:

matriz de priorizacioón

El principio básico para usar esta herramienta es calificar cada actividad que desees realizar en dos escalas: en primer lugar el impacto que la actividad va a tener y en segundo lugar el esfuerzo que va a requerir.

Al ubicar cada actividad en el casillero correspondiente de la matriz, ves rápidamente qué proyecto te da el mayor beneficio por el esfuerzo puesto en él y te permite tratar a cada uno en consecuencia.

  • Ganancias Rápidas (Alto Impacto, Bajo Esfuerzo): Estos son los proyectos más atractivos, brindan un buen beneficio por un esfuerzo relativamente menor. En éstos te debes focalizar el máximo posible.
  • Grandes Proyectos (Alto Impacto, Alto Esfuerzo): Aunque dan buenos beneficios toman un tiempo considerable en completarse. Por lo tanto, embarcarte en un Gran Proyecto puede implicar desplazar varios de Ganancias Rápidas, dado que la cantidad de tiempo y recursos de que dispones es limitada. Si abordas uno de estos proyectos lo ideal es que lo completes lo más rápido y eficientemente posible.
  • Actividades Menores (Bajo Impacto, Bajo Esfuerzo): No deben absorberte demasiado tiempo ni recursos. Si tienes tiempo disponible pueden hacerlas, pero debes posponerlas o descartarlas si aparece algo con mayores beneficios.
  • Tareas Ingratas (Bajo Impacto, Alto Esfuerzo): Debes evitarlas. No sólo brindan bajos beneficios, sino que absorben tiempo y recursos que podrías utilizar mejor.

Para usar la Matriz de Priorización, utiliza el diagrama anterior y sigue estas instrucciones:

  1. Lista las actividades que desees realizar.
  2. Califícalas en términos de impacto (0 = sin impacto, 10 = máximo impacto) y esfuerzo requerido (0 = sin esfuerzo, 10 = esfuerzo mayúsculo).
  3. Ubica las actividades en el diagrama de acuerdo a su calificación.
  4. Selecciona o descarta las actividades de acuerdo a su ubicación.

Tip 1: Mucha de la “magia” de esta herramienta proviene de entender el efecto crowding out o desplazamiento. Esto es: dedicar más tiempo a una tarea o proyecto implica restárselo a otra.

Tip 2: Una variante de esta herramienta es la Matriz de Impacto – Factibilidad, que reemplaza “Esfuerzo” por “Factibilidad”. Esto brinda una perspectiva diferente, que apunta a la capacidad de la organización de lograr cambios importantes.

Tip 3: Es necesario ser cuidadoso al interpretar las líneas que dividen los cuadrantes. Por ejemplo, hay una pequeña diferencia entre 4,9 o 5,1 para que un proyecto sea considerado “Tarea Ingrata” o “Gran Proyecto”. En estos casos lo mejor es que utilices el sentido común.

Tip 4: Puedes utilizar escalas objetivas como dólares de retorno por proyecto y “horas de profesionales” para el esfuerzo involucrado.

89 pensamientos sobre “Cómo usar mejor el tiempo y ganar productividad”

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